Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • ammonia (8)
  • antibiosis (5)
  • bacteria (5)
  • biosynthesis (1)
  • e coli (1)
  • EnvZ (1)
  • escherichia coli (3)
  • gram (4)
  • inhibit (1)
  • OmpR (1)
  • porin (1)
  • research (1)
  • soil (4)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Soil-inhabiting streptomycetes are nature's medicine makers, producing over half of all known antibiotics and many other bioactive natural products. However, these bacteria also produce many volatiles, molecules that disperse through the soil matrix and may impact other (micro)organisms from a distance. Here, we show that soil- and surface-grown streptomycetes have the ability to kill bacteria over long distances via air-borne antibiosis. Our research shows that streptomycetes do so by producing surprisingly high amounts of the low-cost volatile ammonia, dispersing over long distances to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Glycine is required as precursor to produce ammonia, and inactivation of the glycine cleavage system nullified ammonia biosynthesis and concomitantly air-borne antibiosis. Reduced expression of the porin master regulator OmpR and its cognate kinase EnvZ is used as a resistance strategy by E. coli cells to survive ammonia-mediated antibiosis. Finally, ammonia was shown to enhance the activity of canonical antibiotics, suggesting that streptomycetes adopt a low-cost strategy to sensitize competitors for antibiosis from a distance.


    Mariana Avalos, Paolina Garbeva, Jos M Raaijmakers, Gilles P van Wezel. Production of ammonia as a low-cost and long-distance antibiotic strategy by Streptomyces species. The ISME journal. 2020 Feb;14(2):569-583

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 31700119

    View Full Text