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Gram-negative bacteria of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiome: (i) are capable of generating a broad-spectrum of highly neurotoxic, pro-inflammatory and potentially pathogenic molecules; and (ii) these include a highly immunogenic class of amphipathic surface glycolipids known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis), a commensal, Gram negative, non-motile, non-spore forming obligatory anaerobic bacillus, and one of the most abundant bacteria found in the human GI tract, produces a particularly pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic LPS (BF-LPS). BF-LPS: (i) is known to be secreted from the B. fragilis outer membrane into the external-medium; (ii) can damage biophysiological barriers via cleavage of zonula adherens cell-cell adhesion proteins, thereby disrupting both the GI-tract barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (iii) is able to transit GI-tract barriers into the systemic circulation and cross the BBB into the human CNS; and (iv) accumulates within CNS neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This short communication provides evidence that the incubation of B. fragilis with aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] is a potent inducer of BF-LPS. The results suggest for the first time that the pro-inflammatory properties of aluminum may not only be propagated by aluminum itself, but by a stimulation in the production of microbiome-derived BF-LPS and other pro-inflammatory pathogenic microbial products normally secreted from human GI-tract-resident microorganisms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Citation

P N Alexandrov, J M Hill, Y Zhao, T Bond, C M Taylor, M E Percy, W Li, W J Lukiw. Aluminum-induced generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome-resident Bacteroides fragilis. Journal of inorganic biochemistry. 2020 Feb;203:110886

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PMID: 31707334

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