Correlation Engine 2.0
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    The multiresistance plasmid, pZM3, from a 1970 Salmonella enterica serovar Wien isolate from Algeria represents the multiresistance FIme-type plasmids conferring resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, sulfonamides, streptomycin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, and mercuric ions circulating in the Middle East in the 1970s. pZM3 was sequenced to determine the relationship between IS1936, the IS26-like insertion sequence it carries, and IS26. IS1936 is identical to IS26. pZM3 is a 166.8-kb plasmid with three replicons typed as FIA-1, FIB-1, and FII-1, consistent with other FIme plasmids. However, Tn3, containing the blaTEM-1a ampicillin resistance gene, disrupts the FII repA gene. pZM3 also contains an IS1-flanked virulence region, including the sit and aerobactin operons, shared with many other FIB-1 virulence plasmids. The remaining resistance genes are located in a 44.7-kb complex resistance island that includes the Tn21-like transposon, Tn1935, identified previously. Relative to Tn21, Tn1935 includes an additional gene cassette, oxa1, and Tn4352 in tniA. Tn1935 is in the same Tn2670 context as Tn21 in NR1, and identity to NR1 extends beyond the IS1 flanking the catA1 gene. On the other side, IS1-mediated events have brought in a Tn10 remnant and inverted part of it, highlighting the role of IS1 in resistance region evolution. The backbone of pZM3 was found to be almost identical to that of pRSB225, recovered in Germany in 2013, and their resistance islands are in the same position. The pRSB225 resistance island has evolved in situ from the pZM3 configuration through an insertion, a replacement, and an inversion.


    Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pZM3, a 1970 FIA:FIB:FII Plasmid Carrying Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Determinants. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2020 May;26(5):438-446

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    PMID: 31718432

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