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    Inflammation is a self-defense response to protect individuals from infection and tissue damage, but excessive or persistent inflammation can have adverse effects on cell survival. Many individuals become especially susceptible to chronic-inflammation-induced sensorineural hearing loss as they age, but the intrinsic molecular mechanism behind aging individuals' increased risk of hearing loss remains unclear. FoxG1 (forkhead box transcription factor G1) is a key transcription factor that plays important roles in hair cell survival through the regulation of mitochondrial function, but how the function of FoxG1 changes during aging and under inflammatory conditions is unknown. In this study, we first found that FoxG1 expression and autophagy both increased gradually in the low concentration lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, while after high concentration of LPS treatment both FoxG1 expression and autophagy levels decreased as the concentration of LPS increased. We then used siRNA to downregulate Foxg1 expression in hair cell-like OC-1 cells and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after LPS injury. Furthermore, we used d-galactose (D-gal) to create an aging model with hair cell-like OC-1 cells and cochlear explant cultures in vitro and found that the expression of Foxg1 and the level of autophagy were both decreased after D-gal and LPS co-treatment. Lastly, we knocked down the expression of Foxg1 under aged inflammation conditions and found increased numbers of dead and apoptotic cells. Together these results suggest that FoxG1 affects the sensitivity of mimetic aging hair cells to inflammation by regulating autophagy pathways. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Zu-Hong He, Sheng-Yu Zou, Ming Li, Fu-Ling Liao, Xia Wu, Hai-Ying Sun, Xue-Yan Zhao, Yu-Juan Hu, Dan Li, Xiao-Xiang Xu, Sen Chen, Yu Sun, Ren-Jie Chai, Wei-Jia Kong. The nuclear transcription factor FoxG1 affects the sensitivity of mimetic aging hair cells to inflammation by regulating autophagy pathways. Redox biology. 2020 Jan;28:101364

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    PMID: 31731101

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