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As a major kind of carbamate insecticide, propoxur plays an important role in agriculture, veterinary medicine, and public health. The acute toxicity of propoxur is mainly neurotoxicity due to the inhibition of cholinesterase. However, little is known regarding the toxicity of propoxur upon long-term exposure at low dose. In this study, Wistar rats were orally administrated with low dose (4.25 mg/kg body weight/day) for consecutive 90 days. And the urine samples in rats treated with propoxur for 30, 60, and 90 days were collected and analyzed by employing 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. We found that propoxur caused significant changes in the urine metabolites, including taurine, creatinine, citrate, succinate, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide. And the alteration of the metabolites was getting more difference compared with that of the control as the exposure time extending. The present study not only indicated that the changed metabolites could be used as biomarkers of propoxur-induced toxicity but also suggested that the time-course alteration of the urine metabolomic profiles could reflect the progressive development of the toxicity following propoxur exposure.


Yu-Jie Liang, Pan Wang, Hui-Ping Wang, Ding-Xin Long, Ying-Jian Sun, Yi-Jun Wu. Time-Course Changes in Urine Metabolic Profiles of Rats Following 90-Day Exposure to Propoxur. Scientific reports. 2019 Nov 18;9(1):16989

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PMID: 31740703

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