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Pregnant women drink caffeinated beverages using bisphenol A (BPA)-coated cans without knowing the potential risks. In this study, mouse embryos (embryonic day 8.5) surrounded by yolk sac placenta were cultured with caffeine (30, 60, and 120 μg/ml) and/or BPA (35 μg/ml) for 48 h. In response to a single administration of BPA or caffeine dose, embryonic development was similar to normal control embryos. However, the combined exposure to caffeine and BPA dose-dependently increased embryonic anomalies, and thinner ventricular wall and trabeculae disorders of heart were observed. The mRNA levels of various anti-oxidative, apoptotic, and hypoxic genes were significantly altered in the treated embryos. Furthermore, abnormal vasculogenesis, reduced vasculogenic growth factor expressions, and apoptotic cell death were detected in yolk sac placentas. These findings indicate that the combined exposure to caffeine and BPA induces embryonic anomalies and injuries of the yolk sac placentas through oxidative stress, apoptosis, hypoxia, and vasculogenic defects. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lee Wha Gwon, Seul Gi Park, Chunmei Lin, Beom Jun Lee, Sang-Yoon Nam. The effects of caffeine and bisphenol A singularly or in combination on cultured mouse embryos and yolk sac placenta. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). 2020 Jan;91:92-100

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PMID: 31756439

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