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C-Glucopyranosyl imidazoles, thiazoles, and an N-glucopyranosyl tetrazole were assessed in vitro and ex vivo for their inhibitory efficiency against isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase (GP; a validated pharmacological target for the development of anti-hyperglycaemic agents). Imidazoles proved to be more potent inhibitors than the corresponding thiazoles or the tetrazole. The most potent derivative has a 2-naphthyl substituent, a Ki value of 3.2 µM for hepatic glycogen phosphorylase, displaying also 60% inhibition of GP activity in HepG2 cells, compared to control vehicle treated cells, at 100 μM. X-Ray crystallography studies of the protein - inhibitor complexes revealed the importance of the architecture of inhibitor associated hydrogen bonds or sulfur σ-hole bond interactions to Asn284 OD1, offering new insights to structure-based design efforts. Moreover, while the 2-glucopyranosyl-tetrazole seems to bind differently from the corresponding 1,2,3-triazole compound, the two inhibitors are equipotent. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Efthimios Kyriakis, Aikaterini G Karra, Olga Papaioannou, Theodora Solovou, Vassiliki T Skamnaki, Panagiota G V Liggri, Spyros E Zographos, Eszter Szennyes, Éva Bokor, Sándor Kun, Anna-Maria G Psarra, László Somsák, Demetres D Leonidas. The architecture of hydrogen and sulfur σ-hole interactions explain differences in the inhibitory potency of C-β-d-glucopyranosyl thiazoles, imidazoles and an N-β-d glucopyranosyl tetrazole for human liver glycogen phosphorylase and offer new insights to structure-based design. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2020 Jan 01;28(1):115196

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PMID: 31767404

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