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    Strong glue of mussels has long been considered as an ideal model to design synthetic bio-adhesives but the adhesive strength of metal-crosslinked mussel-inspired glues is not often satisfactory. Herein, inspired by the adhesive environment of mussels, we obtained metal-crosslinked ε-poly-L-lysine adhesives with high adhesive performance by introducing the elements of suitable adhesive environment (SAE) into the adhesives. The elements of SAE were clarified as weak alkaline conditions (pH ∼ 7.4) and low Fe3+ contents. The adhesive strength (∼105 kPa) of the metal-crosslinked adhesives endowed with the elements of SAE (PL-Cat/Fe-SAE) was about 8 times higher than that of fibrin glues. The high adhesive strength was found to originate from distinctive interfacial adhesion and cohesion strength of PL-Cat/Fe-SAE. PL-Cat/Fe-SAE showed strong interfacial adhesion capacity and nearly comparable cohesion strength to those PL-Cat/Fe adhesives with higher Fe3+ contents. The nearly comparable cohesion strength of PL-Cat/Fe-SAE was then found to be due to more amount of stable tris-complex existed in PL-Cat/Fe-SAE. In addition, PL-Cat/Fe-SAE was able to efficiently close the full thickness skin incisions. The study highlighted the importance of introducing SAE elements into the design of tissue adhesives and provided a facile and efficient strategy for constructing tissue adhesives with high adhesive performance. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Sidi Li, Ning Chen, Yang Li, Xueping Li, Qi Zhan, Jiamin Ban, Jin Zhao, Xin Hou, Xubo Yuan. Metal-crosslinked ɛ-poly-L-lysine tissue adhesives with high adhesive performance: Inspiration from mussel adhesive environment. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2020 Jun 15;153:1251-1261

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    PMID: 31778704

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