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    This study aimed to investigate the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prevalence and viral load in subgingival sites of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) positive (HIV+) individuals, correlating subgingival EBV load to the clinical periodontal condition, HIV systemic load, EBV systemic load, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ninety individuals were recruited and divided into three categories: those without periodontal disease (G1), with gingivitis (G2), and with periodontitis (G3). Subgingival biofilm and blood samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR). A questionnaire was administered to collect general information about patients, and data regarding HIV and use of ART were accessed from their medical records. EBV was detected in 85.6% of the samples. Comparing subgingival and systemic load of EBV in G1, G2, and G3, there was a statistical difference only in G3 (3.93 log10 copies/mL and 5.47 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P = .014), where EBV load was higher in periodontal pockets than in the blood. All groups had high EBV loads in subgingival sites (> 2,000 copies/mL). A positive linear correlation between systemic HIV load and EBV subgingival load was found in G1 and G2 (r = 0.647; P < .001), but not in G3. Only G1 individuals using ART had lower subgingival EBV loads than those not using it (5.03 log10 copies/mL, and 7.14 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P = .0348). Subgingival sites, especially the periodontal pockets, are suggested to act as a reservoir of EBV in HIV+ individuals. Therefore, the identification of latent EBV infections in this easily accessible site might help to improve quality of life in patients with HIV by maintaining oral/periodontal health. In addition it might encourage new approaches in investigating EBV-associated disorders in HIV+ patients.


    Humberto Jácome-Santos, Thalita de Almeida Amanajás, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Armando Rodrigues Lopes Pereira Neto, Sérgio de Melo Alves Junior, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Bruno Pereira Alves, Ana Cláudia Braga Amoras-Alves. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in periodontal sites of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals in North Brazil: a cross-sectional study. Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985). 2020;51(1):18-26

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    PMID: 31781689

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