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    Numerous pathologies can contribute to photophobia. When considering light transduction alone, photophobia may be triggered through melanopsin pathways (non-image forming), rod and cone pathways (image-forming), or some combination of the two. We evaluated a 39 year old female patient with longstanding idiopathic photophobia that was exacerbated by blue light, and tested her by presenting visual stimuli in an event-related fMRI experiment. Analysis showed significantly greater activation in bilateral pulvinar nuclei, associated with the melanopsin intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC) visual pathway, and their activation is consistent with the patient's report that blue light differentially evoked photophobia. This appears to be the first demonstration of functional activation of the ipRGC pathway during photophobia in a patient. Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Athanasios Panorgias, Danielle Lee, Katie E Silva, David Borsook, Eric A Moulton. Blue light activates pulvinar nuclei in longstanding idiopathic photophobia: A case report. NeuroImage. Clinical. 2019;24:102096

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    PMID: 31795037

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