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Extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are the neuropathological findings of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, the main component of senile plaques, the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, and its derivative called amyloid precursor protein (APP) both have been found to place their central roles in AD development for years. However, the recent therapeutics have yet to reverse or halt this disease. Previous evidence demonstrates that the accumulation of peptides and APP can exert neurotoxicity and ultimately neuronal cell death. Hence, we discuss the mechanisms of excessive production of peptides and APP serving as pathophysiologic stimuli for the initiation of various cell signalling pathways including apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and autophagy which lead to neuronal cell death. Conversely, the activation of such pathways could also result in the abnormal generation of APP and peptides. An elucidation of actions of APP and its metabolite, , could be vital in suggesting novel therapeutic opportunities.


Yong Qi Leong, Khuen Yen Ng, Soi Moi Chye, Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Rhun Yian Koh. Mechanisms of action of amyloid-beta and its precursor protein in neuronal cell death. Metabolic brain disease. 2020 Jan;35(1):11-30

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PMID: 31811496

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