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    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a main contributor to low back and radicular pain, which imposes heavy economic burdens on society. However, the etiology and mechanism of IVDD are complex and still not completely clear. In particular, the role of estrogen in IVDD has not received much attention in recent research, although estrogen plays a crucial role in the metabolic dysfunction of others musculoskeletal structures, such as bone, muscle, and tendon. In this review, we attempt to describe the role of estrogen in IVDD and to summarize the proposed mechanisms in vivo and in vitro, as well as, to outline several interesting questions in this field. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Lin-Yu Jin, Xiao-Xing Song, Xin-Feng Li. The role of estrogen in intervertebral disc degeneration. Steroids. 2020 Feb;154:108549

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    PMID: 31812622

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