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    The genome of Arabidopsis encodes more than 60 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) kinases (MAPKKKs); however, the functions of most MAPKKKs and their downstream MAPKKs are largely unknown. Here, MAPKKK δ-1 (MKD1), a novel Raf-like MAPKKK, was isolated from Arabidopsis as a subunit of a complex including the transcription factor AtNFXL1, which is involved in the trichothecene phytotoxin response and in disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000). A MKD1-dependent cascade positively regulates disease resistance against PstDC3000 and the trichothecene mycotoxin-producing fungal pathogen Fusarium sporotrichioides. MKD1 expression was induced by trichothecenes derived from Fusarium species. MKD1 directly interacted with MKK1 and MKK5 in vivo, and phosphorylated MKK1 and MKK5 in vitro. Correspondingly, mkk1 mutants and MKK5RNAi transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to F. sporotrichioides. MKD1 was required for full activation of two MAPKs (MPK3 and MPK6) by the T-2 toxin and flg22. Finally, quantitative phosphoproteomics suggested that an MKD1-dependent cascade controlled phosphorylation of a disease resistance protein, SUMO, and a mycotoxin-detoxifying enzyme. Our findings suggest that the MKD1-MKK1/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6-dependent signaling cascade is involved in the full immune responses against both bacterial and fungal infection. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


    Tomoya Asano, Thi Hang-Ni Nguyen, Michiko Yasuda, Yasir Sidiq, Kohji Nishimura, Hideo Nakashita, Takumi Nishiuchi. Arabidopsis MAPKKK δ-1 is required for full immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. Journal of experimental botany. 2020 Mar 25;71(6):2085-2097

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    PMID: 31844896

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