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As part of their entry and infection strategy, viruses interact with specific receptor molecules expressed on the surface of target cells. The efficiency and kinetics of the virus-receptor interactions required for a virus to productively infect a cell is determined by the biophysical properties of the receptors, which are in turn influenced by the receptors' plasma membrane (PM) environments. Currently, little is known about the biophysical properties of these receptor molecules or their engagement during virus binding and entry. Here we review virus-receptor interactions focusing on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), the etiological agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), as a model system. HIV is one of the best characterised enveloped viruses, with the identity, roles and structure of the key molecules required for infection well established. We review current knowledge of receptor-mediated HIV entry, addressing the properties of the HIV cell-surface receptors, the techniques used to measure these properties, and the macromolecular interactions and events required for virus entry. We discuss some of the key biophysical principles underlying receptor-mediated virus entry and attempt to interpret the available data in the context of biophysical mechanisms. We also highlight crucial outstanding questions and consider how new tools might be applied to advance understanding of the biophysical properties of viral receptors and the dynamic events leading to virus entry. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Isabel Llorente García, Mark Marsh. A biophysical perspective on receptor-mediated virus entry with a focus on HIV. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes. 2020 Jun 01;1862(6):183158

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PMID: 31863725

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