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    Natural nonproteinogenic amino acids vastly outnumber the well-known 22 proteinogenic amino acids. Such amino acids are generated in specialized metabolic pathways. In these pathways, diverse biosynthetic transformations, ranging from isomerizations to the stereospecific functionalization of C-H bonds, are employed to generate structural diversity. The resulting nonproteinogenic amino acids can be integrated into more complex natural products. Here we review recently discovered biosynthetic routes to freestanding nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, with an emphasis on work reported between 2013 and mid-2019.


    Jason B Hedges, Katherine S Ryan. Biosynthetic Pathways to Nonproteinogenic α-Amino Acids. Chemical reviews. 2020 Mar 25;120(6):3161-3209

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    PMID: 31869221

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