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Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is cross-linked and dysfunctional in human atheroma. Although multiple mechanisms of apoA-I cross-linking have been demonstrated in vitro, the in vivo mechanisms of cross-linking are not well-established. We have recently demonstrated the highly selective and efficient modification of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apoproteins by endogenous oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs), including γ-ketoalkenal phospholipids. In the current study, we report that γ-ketoalkenal phospholipids effectively cross-link apoproteins in HDL. We further demonstrate that cross-linking impairs the cholesterol efflux mediated by apoA-I or HDL3 in vitro and in vivo Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we analyzed the pattern of apoprotein cross-linking in isolated human HDL either by synthetic γ-ketoalkenal phospholipids or by oxPLs generated during HDL oxidation in plasma by the physiologically relevant MPO-H2O2-NO2 - system. We found that five histidine residues in helices 5-8 of apoA-I are preferably cross-linked by oxPLs, forming stable pyrrole adducts with lysine residues in the helices 3-4 of another apoA-I or in the central domain of apoA-II. We also identified cross-links of apoA-I and apoA-II with two minor HDL apoproteins, apoA-IV and apoE. We detected a similar pattern of apoprotein cross-linking in oxidized murine HDL. We further detected oxPL cross-link adducts of HDL apoproteins in plasma and aorta of hyperlipidemic LDLR-/- mice, including cross-link adducts of apoA-I His-165-apoA-I Lys-93, apoA-I His-154-apoA-I Lys-105, apoA-I His-154-apoA-IV Lys-149, and apoA-II Lys-30-apoE His-227. These findings suggest an important mechanism that contributes to the loss of HDL's atheroprotective function in vivo. © 2020 Gao et al.


Detao Gao, Mohammad Z Ashraf, Lifang Zhang, Niladri Kar, Tatiana V Byzova, Eugene A Podrez. Cross-linking modifications of HDL apoproteins by oxidized phospholipids: structural characterization, in vivo detection, and functional implications. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2020 Feb 14;295(7):1973-1984

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PMID: 31907281

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