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The Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein-related Lipid Transfer (START) domain is a ~210 amino acid sequence that folds into an α/β helix-grip structure forming a hydrophobic pocket for lipid binding. The helix-grip fold structure defines a large superfamily of proteins, and this review focuses on the mammalian START domain family members that include single START domain proteins with identified ligands, and larger multi-domain proteins that may have novel roles in metabolism. Much of our understanding of the mammalian START domain proteins in lipid transport and changes in metabolism has advanced through studies using knockout mouse models, although for some of these proteins the identity and/or physiological role of ligand binding remains unknown. The findings that helped define START domain lipid-binding specificity, lipid transport, and changes in metabolism are presented to highlight that fundamental questions remain regarding the biological function(s) for START domain-containing proteins. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Barbara J Clark. The START-domain proteins in intracellular lipid transport and beyond. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2020 Mar 15;504:110704

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PMID: 31927098

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