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    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the probable beneficial role of the individual as well as combined application of kinetin (50 μM Kn) and spermidine (200 μM Spd) on Vigna angularis under cadmium (Cd) stress. Cd treatment reduced growth by declining the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, photosynthesis, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenously, Kn and Spd application enhanced the photosynthetic parameters and up-regulated the antioxidant system by improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic components. In addition, the application of Kn and Spd resulted in significant improvement in the content of sugars, proline, and glycine betaine, ameliorating the decline in relative water content. Oxidative stress parameters including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase activity, and electrolyte leakage increased due to Cd stress; however, the application of Kn and Spd imparted a significant decline in all these parameters. Further, reduced Cd uptake was also observed due to Kn and Spd application. Total phenols and flavonoids also increased due to Kn and Spd treatments under normal as well as Cd stress conditions, which may have further helped with the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Reduction in the activity of nitrate reductase and the content of nitrogen was ameliorated due to the exogenous application of Kn and Spd. Therefore, the exogenous application of Kn and Spd benefited Vigna angularis counteracting the damaging effects of Cd stress by up-regulating the tolerance mechanisms, including antioxidant and osmolyte metabolism.

    Citation

    Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Usman Aziz, Abdulaziz Al Sahli, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad. Combined Kinetin and Spermidine Treatments Ameliorate Growth and Photosynthetic Inhibition in Vigna angularis by Up-Regulating Antioxidant and Nitrogen Metabolism under Cadmium Stress. Biomolecules. 2020 Jan 16;10(1)

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    PMID: 31963299

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