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In angiosperms, fertilization and embryogenesis occur in the embryo sac, which is deeply embedded in ovular tissue. In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated gametes have been utilized to dissect postfertilization events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygotic development, and early embryogenesis. In addition, using IVF systems, interspecific zygotes and polyploid zygotes have been artificially produced, and their developmental profiles/mechanisms have been analyzed. Taken together, the IVF system can be considered a powerful technique for investigating the fertilization-induced developmental sequences in zygotes and generating new cultivars with desirable characteristics. Here, we describe the procedures for the isolation of rice gametes, electrofusion of gametes, and the culture of the produced zygotes and embryo.


Md Hassanur Rahman, Erika Toda, Takashi Okamoto. In Vitro Production of Zygotes by Electrofusion of Rice Gametes. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2020;2122:257-267

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PMID: 31975308

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