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    Driving a motor vehicle needs a specific joint mobility and yet only limited knowledge exists regarding the necessary ankle range of motion. The goal of this study is to characterize the sequence and range of ankle motion. The arc of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and supination/pronation was recorded in the right and left ankle using electrogoniometers while thirty laps were driven by fifteen healthy participants around a course in a manual transmission car with a left sided steering wheel. The driver was required to perform the following maneuvers during each lap: (I) Vehicle acceleration and gear change, (II) Sudden evasion, (III) Routine turning, (IV) Rapid turning, (V) Vehicle acceleration followed by emergency braking. Driving required the right ankle to plantarflex 13±9 and dorsiflex 22±7 while supinating 15±7 degrees and pronating minimally. The left ankle plantarflexed 19±10and dorsiflexed 17±10 while supinating 15±7 degrees and pronating minimally. The right ankle dorsiflexed significantly more (p=0.00), and yet the left ankle had a significantly higher maximum plantarflexion and range of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion (p=0.00). Emergency braking resulted in a significantly higher maximum plantarflexion as well as plantarflexion/dorsiflexion range when compared to other maneuvers. This study describes the range of ankle motion identified to drive a car with a manual transmission and a left-sided steering wheel. The right and left ankle exhibit different arcs of motion during driving. This knowledge may assist when evaluating a patient's driving capability. Further studies are needed to investigate whether movement restrictions impair driving. Basic science study. Copyright © 2020 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    David Latz, Erik Schiffner, Johannes Schneppendahl, Jan Peter Grassmann, Pascal Jungbluth, Robert Alexander Kaufmann, Joachim Windolf, Sebastian Viktor Gehrmann. Doctor, when can I drive? - Range of functional ankle motion during driving. Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. 2020 Dec;26(8):924-929

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    PMID: 31980383

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