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Congenital cytomegalovirus (CCMV) accounts for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. Neutropenia is a common finding in CCMV infection, of which the age of presentation overlaps with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). AIN represents one of the most common forms of chronic neutropenia in childhood. A literature search exploring biologic associations between CCMV and AIN was conducted: PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid and Web of Science. We further describe 2 cases of concurrent CCMV and AIN. Both cases were confirmed with the indirect granulocyte immunofluorescence test and alternative etiologies for neutropenia excluded. Our 2 patients represent confirmed cases of AIN in infants with CCMV. One patient demonstrated neutropenia while undergoing treatment with Valganciclovir, while the other was never treated. With interruption of Valganciclovir in infant A, neutrophil counts (ANC) did not improve and upon resumption of treatment ANC remained static. Further studies examining a possible biologic link between CCMV and AIN are advocated for. We encourage clinicians to actively consider AIN in the differential diagnosis of all infants with CCMV presenting with neutropenia.


Justin Penner, Claire S-Y Chan, James E Burns, Sakina Ali, Hermione Lyall. Congenital Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Neutropenia: Cause or Coincidence? The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2020 Apr;39(4):336-338

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PMID: 31990888

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