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It is hypothesized that in the long-term, (a) peri-implant inflammatory variables (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth (PD) and crestal bone loss [CBL]) are worse in cigarette-smokers (CS) and patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than never-smokers (NS) without T2DM. The aim of the present 7-year follow-up clinical observational study was to assess the survival of dental implant in CS and NS with T2DM. Study participants were divided into four groups based on glycemic status and self-reported cigarette-smoking habit: a) CS with T2DM; b) CS without T2DM; c) NS with T2DM; and d) NS without T2DM. Demographic information was collected using a questionnaire and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Peri-implant PI, BOP, PD, and CBL were measured. Sample-size was estimated was statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance. P <0.01 was considered significant. In total, 101 male patients were included. There was no significant contrast in age among the groups. Every partaker in the study groups had one dental implant placed in posterior maxilla or mandible. The mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among CS (P <0.01) and NS (P <0.01) with T2DM than individuals without T2DM. Peri-implant PI (P <0.01), PD (P <0.01), and CBL (P <0.01) were significantly higher among CS and NS with T2DM and CS without T2DM than NS without T2DM. Peri-implant BOP was significantly higher among CS and NS with T2DM than CS and NS without T2DM (P <0.01). Peri-implant inflammatory variables were worse among CS and NS with T2DM than NS without T2DM. A state of chronic hyperglycemia seems to be a stronger mediator of inflammation than cigarette smoking in patients with T2DM. © 2020 American Academy of Periodontology.


Fawaz Alqahtani, Nasser Alqhtani, Fahad Alkhtani, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz A Al-Kheraif, Fawad Javed. Clinicoradiographic markers of peri-implantitis in cigarette-smokers and never-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus at 7-years follow-up. Journal of periodontology. 2020 Sep;91(9):1132-1138

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PMID: 32017116

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