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Heart failure (HF) is a medical condition inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demand of the body to take place. The number of hospitalized patients with cardiovascular diseases is estimated to be more than 1 million each year, of which 80% to 90% of patients ultimately progress to decompensated HF. Digitalis glycosides exert modest inotropic actions when administered to patients with decompensated HF. Although its efficacy in patients with HF and atrial fibrillation is clear, its value in patients with HF and sinus rhythm has often been questioned. A series of recent studies have cast serious doubt on the benefit of digoxin when added to contemporary HF treatment. We are hypothesizing the role and mechanism of exosome and its biological constituents responsible for worsening the disease state and mortality in decompensated HF patients on digitalis. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Jin-Ling Fu, Qiong Yu, Meng-Di Li, Chun-Mei Hu, Guang Shi. Deleterious cardiovascular effect of exosome in digitalis-treated decompensated congestive heart failure. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2020 May;34(5):e22462

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PMID: 32045083

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