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Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a neuropathic pain disorder associated with a burning sensation on oral mucosal surfaces with frequently reported xerostomia, dysgeusia and tingling or paraesthetic sensations. However, patients present no clinically evident causative lesions. The poor classification of the disorder has resulted in a diagnostic challenge, particularly for the clinician/dentist evaluating these individuals. Major research developments have been made in the BMS field in recent years to address this concern, principally in terms of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disorder, in addition to therapeutic advancements. For the purpose of this review, an update on the pathophysiological mechanisms will be discussed from a neuropathic, immunological, hormonal and psychological perspective. This review will also focus on the many therapeutic strategies that have been explored for BMS, including antidepressants/antipsychotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, hormone replacement therapies, phytotherapeutic compounds and non-pharmacological interventions, overall highlighting the lack of controlled clinical studies to support the effectiveness of such therapeutic avenues. Particular focus is given to the cannabinoid system and the potential of cannabis-based therapeutics in managing BMS patients. © 2020 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Sónia R Pereira, Johana Tello Velasquez, Sarah Duggan, Bojana Ivanisevic, Joseph P McKenna, Christine McCreary, Eric J Downer. Recent advances in the understanding of the aetiology and therapeutic strategies in burning mouth syndrome: Focus on the actions of cannabinoids. The European journal of neuroscience. 2022 Feb;55(4):1032-1050

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PMID: 32091630

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