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In order to facilitate the development of the green subcritical water chromatography technique for vanillin and coumarin, the stability of the compounds under subcritical water conditions was investigated in this work. In addition, their extraction from natural products was also studied. The stability experiments were carried out by heating the mixtures of vanillin and water or coumarin and water at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 250 °C, while subcritical water extractions (SBWE) of both analytes from vanilla beans and whole tonka beans were conducted at 100 °C to 200 °C. Analyte quantification for both stability and extraction studies was carried out by HPLC. After heating for 60 min, vanillin was found to be stable in water at temperatures up to 250 °C. While coumarin is also stable at lower temperatures such as 100 °C and 150 °C, it undergoes partial degradation after heating for 60 min at 200 °C and higher. The results of this stability study support green subcritical water chromatographic separation and extraction of vanillin and coumarin at temperatures up to 150 °C. The SBWE results revealed that the extraction efficiency of both analytes from vanilla beans and tonka beans is significantly improved with increasing temperature.


Ninad Doctor, Grayson Parker, Katie Vang, Melanie Smith, Berkant Kayan, Yu Yang. Stability and Extraction of Vanillin and Coumarin under Subcritical Water Conditions. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2020 Feb 27;25(5)

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PMID: 32120972

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