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This paper focuses on the development of a real-time wearable assist system for upper extremity throwing action based on the accelerometers of inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. This real-time assist system can be utilized to the learning, rectification, and rehabilitation for the upper extremity throwing action of players in the field of baseball, where incorrect throwing phases are recognized by a delicate action analysis. The throwing action includes not only the posture characteristics of each phase, but also the transition of continuous posture movements, which is more complex when compared to general action recognition with no continuous phase change. In this work, we have considered six serial phases including wind-up, stride, arm cocking, arm acceleration, arm deceleration, and follow-through in the throwing action recognition process. The continuous movement of each phase of the throwing action is represented by a one-dimensional data sequence after the three-axial acceleration signals are processed by efficient noise filtering based on Kalman filter followed by conversion processes such as leveling and labeling techniques. The longest common subsequence (LCS) method is then used to determine the six serial phases of the throwing action by verifying the sequence data with a sample sequence. We have incorporated various intelligent action recognition functions including automatic recognition for getting ready status, starting movement, handle interrupt situation, and detailed posture transition in the proposed assist system. Moreover, a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel and mobile interface are incorporated into the developed assist system to make it more user-friendly. The real-time system provides precise comments to assist players to attain improved throwing action by analyzing their posture during throwing action. Various experiments were conducted to analyze the efficiency and practicality of the developed assist system as part of this work. We have obtained an average percentage accuracy of 95.14%, 91.42%, and 95.14%, respectively, for all the three users considered in this study. We were able to successfully recognize the throwing action with good precision and the high percentage accuracy exhibited by the proposed assist system indicates its excellent performance.


Kuang-Yow Lian, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Deepak Balram, Chen-Yi Lee. A Real-Time Wearable Assist System for Upper Extremity Throwing Action Based on Accelerometers. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 2020 Feb 29;20(5)

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PMID: 32121453

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