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    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a commercially important flatfish species in aquaculture. It has a drastic sexual dimorphism, with females growing faster than males. In the present study, we sequenced and de novo assembled female and male turbot genomes. The assembled female genome was 568 Mb (scaffold N50, 6.2 Mb, BUSCO 97.4%), and the male genome was 584 Mb (scaffold N50, 5.9 Mb, BUSCO 96.6%). Using two genetic maps, we anchored female scaffolds representing 535 Mb onto 22 chromosomes. Annotation of the female anchored genome identified 87.8 Mb transposon elements and 20,134 genes. We identified 17,936 gene families, of which 369 gene families were flatfish specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the turbot, Japanese flounder and Chinese tongue sole form a clade that diverged from other teleosts approximately 78 Mya. This report of female and male turbot draft genomes and annotated genes provides a new resource for identifying sex determination genes, elucidating the evolution of adaptive traits in flatfish and developing genetic techniques to increase the sustainability of turbot aquaculture.


    Xi-Wen Xu, Chang-Wei Shao, Hao Xu, Qian Zhou, Feng You, Na Wang, Wen-Long Li, Ming Li, Song-Lin Chen. Draft genomes of female and male turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Scientific data. 2020 Mar 12;7(1):90

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    PMID: 32165614

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