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    The purpose of this study of pancreatic cancer patients treated with respiratory-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on a standard linac was to investigate (a) the intrafractional relationship change (IRC) between a breathing signal and the tumor position, (b) the impact of IRC on the delivered dose, and (c) potential IRC predictors. We retrospectively investigated 10 pancreatic cancer patients with 2-4 implanted fiducial markers in the tumor treated with SBRT. Fluoroscopic images were acquired before and after treatment delivery simultaneously with the abdominal breathing motion. We quantified the IRC as the change in fiducial location for a given breathing amplitude in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions from before to after treatment delivery. The treatment plans were re-calculated after changing the isocenter coordinates according to the IRCs. Four treatment- or patient-related factors were investigated as potential predictors for IRC using linear models. The average (±1 SD) absolute IRCs in the LR, AP, and SI directions were 1.2 ± 1.2 mm, 0.7 ± 0.7 mm, and 1.1 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The average 3D IRC was 2.0 ± 1.3 mm (range: 0.4-5.3 mm) for a median treatment delivery time of 8.5 min (range: 5.7-19.9 min; n = 31 fractions). The dose coverage of the internal target volume (ITV) decreased by more than 3% points in three of 31 fractions. In those cases, the 3D IRC had been larger than 4.3 mm. The 3D IRC was found to correlate with changes in the minimum breathing amplitude during treatment delivery. On average, 2 mm of treatment delivery accuracy was lost due to IRC. Periodical intrafractional imaging is needed to safely deliver respiratory-guided SBRT. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


    Niclas Pettersson, Oluwaseyi M Oderinde, James Murphy, Daniel Simpson, Laura I Cerviño. Intrafractional relationship changes between an external breathing signal and fiducial marker positions in pancreatic cancer patients. Journal of applied clinical medical physics. 2020 Mar;21(3):153-161

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    PMID: 32170900

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