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    There is a vast and rapid increase in the applications of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the biomedical field, including drug delivery, bio-sensing, and diagnostic tools. Among all the applications, the GO and rGO-based scaffolds are a very promising system that have attracted attention because of their great clinical projection in tissue regeneration therapies. Both GO and rGO have shown a strong impact on the proliferation and differentiation of implemented stem cells, but still need to overcome several challenges, such as cytotoxicity, biodistribution, biotransformation or immune response. However, there are still controversial hypothesises regarding the mechanisms involved in these issues that should be clarified in order to improve the applications of these compounds. 3D-scaffolds can help in solving some of those limitations when moving into preclinical studies in regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the application of GO and rGO within 3D scaffolds in bone, cardiac and neural regenerative medicine after analyzing the aforementioned challenges. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Ahmed Raslan, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Jesús Ciriza, Jose Luis Pedraz. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide-based scaffolds in regenerative medicine. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2020 Apr 30;580:119226

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    PMID: 32179151

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