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    Monitoring water quality in hemodialysis systems is extremely important to maintain adequate quality services for patients suffering from kidney failure. This work aims to examine and evaluate bacteriological characteristics and endotoxin contamination levels in hemodialysis water produced in dialysis centers. Forty-eight water samples were collected and analyzed from four major hospitals in Baghdad for one year to evaluate seasonal effects. The analysis included the determination of total heterotrophic bacteria using the pour plate method, identification of bacterial isolate using the Vitek2 compact instrument, and the determination of endotoxins levels using Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) method. In addition, tap water samples (a source for the hemodialysis water) were also examined bacteriologically. Results showed that 44% of the tested samples for bacterial levels are higher than the maximum value of (100 CFU/ml) set out by the international standards. Endotoxin values for these centers fluctuated during the study period, and 44% of them exceeded the international standards (>0.25 EU/ml). These results call for applying improved technology to modify the existing water treatment units for better control and for national standardization of the microbiological quality of hemodialysis water. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Four hemodialysis centers were assessed by measuring the bacteriological and endotoxins levels of their feed and product water. Product water showed elevated levels of bacteria that exceeded the international guideline value of 100 CFU/ml. Most of the identified bacterial species were Gram-negative that arise the possibility of contributing to endotoxin generation. Product water showed fluctuated values of endotoxins. About 44% of the measured samples were higher than the international guideline values of 0.25 EU/ml. © 2020 Water Environment Federation.


    Yasamen R Humudat, Saadi K Al-Naseri, Yaaroub F Al-Fatlawy. Assessment of microbial contamination levels of water in hemodialysis centers in Baghdad, Iraq. Water environment research : a research publication of the Water Environment Federation. 2020 Sep;92(9):1325-1333

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    PMID: 32187760

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