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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. Once patients survive the acute phase, long-term prognosis is generally satisfactory. CVST patients who harbored risk factors known for poor prognosis (e.g., deterioration of consciousness/neurological functions and seizures) were oftentimes unresponsive to systemic heparin treatment. The advantage of combined endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) and on-site chemical thrombolysis (OCT) plus systemic heparin for CVST over the heparin treatment alone has not been proved. A retrospective study was conducted to analyze consecutive patients with CVST from 2005 to 2015. Patients having clinical improvement or stable disease after heparin treatment were in I/S group; patients having continuous deterioration of consciousness/neurological functions and refractory seizures (despite the use of multiple anti-epileptic drugs) after heparin treatment were in D group. EMT and OCT were indicated for patients in D group. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed for statistical analysis. Safety issues included new-onset/progression of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) or procedure-related complications. Total thirty patients were included (I/S group = 16; D group = 14). In D group, the mean time frame from the start of heparin treatment to the endovascular treatment was 3.2 days. Compared with I/S group, all patients in D group had complete stenosis of the sinuses, with higher initial mRS, lower initial GCS, and more seizures (p = 0.006, 0.007, and 0.031, respectively), but no significant differences in the mRS at discharge (p = 0.504). Shorter length of thrombosis and lower initial mRS were associated with better outcomes (p = 0.009 and 0.003, respectively). Thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was associated with bad outcomes (p = 0.026). There were two patients (6.7%) with worsening symptomatic ICH, one in each group, managed surgically. The overall mortality of the study was 6.7% (2/30). Combined EMT and OCT after heparin treatment for severe CVST were reasonably safe, which might be considered as a salvage treatment in severe CVST patients who are unresponsive to heparin with heavy clot burden involving SSS in the acute phase. However, further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and validity.

Citation

Chih-Hsiang Liao, Nien-Chen Liao, Wen-Hsien Chen, Hung-Chieh Chen, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Shun-Fa Yang, Yuang-Seng Tsuei. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy and On-Site Chemical Thrombolysis for Severe Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis. Scientific reports. 2020 Mar 18;10(1):4937

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PMID: 32188921

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