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    The current clinical treatment of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome includes endotracheal intubation and intratracheal instillation of exogenous surfactant. Nebulization of surfactant offers an attractive alternative. The aims of this study were to test nebulization as a noninvasive method of administering surfactant and determine the optimal dose for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome-associated pathophysiology of the neonatal lungs. Prospective, randomized, animal model study. An experimental laboratory. Thirty-six newborn piglets. Different doses (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of poractant alfa were administered via a vibrating membrane nebulizer (eFlow-Neos; Pari Pharma GmbH, Starnberg, Germany) or a bolus administration using the intubation-surfactant-extubation (Insure) technique (200 mg/kg) to spontaneously breathing newborn piglets (n = 6/group) with bronchoalveolar lavage-induced respiratory distress syndrome during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (180 min). Pulmonary, hemodynamic, and cerebral effects were assessed. Histologic analysis of lung and brain tissue was also performed. After repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, newborn piglets developed severe respiratory distress syndrome. Rapid improvement in pulmonary status was observed in the Insure group, whereas a dose-response effect was observed in nebulized surfactant groups. Nebulized poractant alfa was more effective at doses higher than 100 mg/kg and was associated with similar pulmonary, hemodynamic, and cerebral behavior to that in the Insure group, but improved lung injury scores. In newborn piglets with severe bronchoalveolar lavage-induced respiratory distress syndrome, our results demonstrate that the administration of nebulized poractant alfa using an investigational customized eFlow-Neos nebulizer is an effective and safe noninvasive surfactant administration technique.


    Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria Mielgo, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Francesca Ricci, Federico Bianco, Fabrizio Salomone, Begoña Loureiro. Dose-Response Study on Surfactant Nebulization Therapy During Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation in Spontaneously Breathing Surfactant-Deficient Newborn Piglets. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2020 Jul;21(7):e456-e466

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    PMID: 32195907

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