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    To examine the differences and correlations among pain, depressive symptoms, and constipation in smokers and non smokers. The present study was a cross-sectional study that used descriptive correlations. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Smokers had more pain, depressive symptoms, and constipation than non smokers. Smokers had similar serotonin levels compared with non smokers. Positive correlations were observed between constipation and serum serotonin levels (r = .19, P = .039, n = 116), between constipation and depressive symptoms (r = .18, P = .023, n = 164), and between constipation and pain (r = .23, P = .004, n = 164) in smokers. Health professionals should assess and treat patients with the knowledge that the severity of pain, depression, and constipation may be greater in smokers than in non smokers. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Eun Jin Lee. Correlations among pain, depressive symptoms, constipation, and serotonin levels in smokers and non smokers. Perspectives in psychiatric care. 2020 Oct;56(4):864-870

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    PMID: 32202333

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