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    Dicamba is a widely applied herbicide for crop protection and has potential for volatility. New formulations containing dicamba with greatly reduced volatility, introduced to the market in 2017, still caused foliar injury to crops and other plants in Arkansas and neighboring states in the United States. In response, we proposed the transformation of dicamba into protic as well as aprotic dicamba-based organic salts called herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs). All of the HILs were characterized by high stability, whereas the biological activity of the most effective products, evaluated during greenhouse studies, was found to be greater than that of currently used commercial analogues. Furthermore, the possibility of introducing an alkyl chain of a specific length allows one to obtain plant protection products with the desired physicochemical properties while maintaining herbicidal effectiveness. These studies are expected to aid in the design and development of new herbicidal formulations, which, depending on the weed species, could increase the efficacy of the applied active ingredient. Simultaneously, the volatility of the synthesized compounds, particularly those containing quaternary ammonium cations, was multiple times lower than that of the free acid of dicamba. This strategy minimizes the risk of off-site movement via volatilization, which may cause significant damage to neighboring broadleaf crops and pose a threat to existing ecosystems.


    Juliusz Pernak, Damian K Kaczmarek, Tomasz Rzemieniecki, Michał Niemczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Tadeusz Praczyk. Dicamba-Based Herbicides: Herbicidal Ionic Liquids versus Commercial Forms. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2020 Apr 22;68(16):4588-4594

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    PMID: 32243143

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