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Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare complex vessel malformation syndrome characterized by venous varicosities, capillary malformations, and limb hypertrophy. However, extensive heterotopic ossification (HO) secondary to this syndrome is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with previously undiagnosed KTS and extensive HO who presented with a femoral fracture secondary to a motor vehicle accident. Extensive ossification, which leads to compulsive contracture deformity and dysfunction of the leg, was distributed on the flexor muscle side, as revealed by the radiograph. The diagnosis was finally established by combining imaging and histological analysis with classical clinical symptoms. Amputation was performed at the fracture site proximal to the infected necrotic foci. Open management of the fracture was challenging owning to the pervasive ossification and tendency for excessive bleeding. Gene sequencing analysis showed homozygous mutation of FoxO1 gene. Definitive diagnosis of a combination of KTS and extensive HO requires detailed imaging analysis and pathologic evidence. Mutation of the FoxO1 gene, which regulates bone formation by resistance to oxidative stress in osteoblasts, is a potential factor in the microenvironment of malformed vessels caused by KTS.


Wanbo Zhu, Kai Xie, Jiazhao Yang, Li Li, Xujin Wang, Lei Xu, Shiyuan Fang. Diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and extensive heterotopic ossification in a patient with a femoral fracture: a case report and literature review. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2020 Apr 11;21(1):223

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PMID: 32278353

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