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Over the last decades, the role of inflammation and immune system activation in the initiation and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been established. The study aimed to present the interplay between cytokines and their actions preceding and shortly after ACS. We searched in a systemic manner the most relevant articles to the topic of inflammation, cytokines, vulnerable plaque and myocardial infarction in MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases. Different classes of cytokines (intereleukin [IL]-1 family, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) family, chemokines, adipokines, interferons) are implicated in the entire process leading to destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque, and consequently, to the incidence of myocardial infarction. Especially IL-1 and TNF-α family are involved in inflammatory cell accumulation, vulnerable plaque formation, platelet aggregation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and adverse remodeling following the myocardial infarction. Several cytokines such as IL-6, adiponectin, interferon-γ, appear with significant prognostic value in ACS patients. Thus, research interest focuses on the modulation of inflammation in ACS to improve clinical outcomes. Understanding the unique characteristics that accompany each cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction could illuminate the signaling pathways involved in plaque destabilization and indicate future treatment strategies to improve cardiovascular prognosis in ACS patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at


Konstantinos Mourouzis, Evangelos Oikonomou, Gerasimos Siasos, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Georgia Vogiatzi, Alexios Antonopoulos, Petros Fountoulakis, Athina Goliopoulou, Spyridon Papaioannou, Dimitris Tousoulis. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Acute Coronary Syndromes. Current pharmaceutical design. 2020;26(36):4624-4647

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PMID: 32282296

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