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Non-muscle actins have been studied for many decades; however, the reason for the existence of both isoforms is still unclear. Here we show, for the first time, a successful inactivation of the ACTB (CRISPR clones with inactivated ACTB, CR-ACTB) and ACTG1 (CRISPR clones with inactivated ACTG1, CR-ACTG1) genes in human melanoma cells (A375) via the RNA-guided D10A mutated Cas9 nuclease gene editing [CRISPR/Cas9(D10A)] technique. This approach allowed us to evaluate how melanoma cell motility was impacted by the lack of either β actin coded by ACTB or γ actin coded by ACTG1. First, we observed different distributions of β and γ actin in the cells, and the absence of one actin isoform was compensated for via increased expression of the other isoform. Moreover, we noted that γ actin knockout had more severe consequences on cell migration and invasion than β actin knockout. Next, we observed that the formation rate of bundled stress fibers in CR-ACTG1 cells was increased, but lamellipodial activity in these cells was impaired, compared to controls. Finally, we discovered that the formation rate of focal adhesions (FAs) and, subsequently, FA-dependent signaling were altered in both the CR-ACTB and CR-ACTG1 clones; however, a more detrimental effect was observed for γ actin-deficient cells. Our research shows that both non-muscle actins play distinctive roles in melanoma cells' FA formation and motility.


Natalia Malek, Ewa Mrówczyńska, Aleksandra Michrowska, Ewa Mazurkiewicz, Iuliia Pavlyk, Antonina Joanna Mazur. Knockout of ACTB and ACTG1 with CRISPR/Cas9(D10A) Technique Shows that Non-Muscle β and γ Actin Are Not Equal in Relation to Human Melanoma Cells' Motility and Focal Adhesion Formation. International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Apr 15;21(8)

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PMID: 32326615

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