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    Chemiluminescence-enzyme immunoassays make it possible to measure trace components with high sensitivity and selectivity due to the high specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction and the high sensitivity of chemiluminescence assays. However, using an enzyme-labeled antibody suffers from many problems such as low reproducibility due to the instability of the enzyme and inhibition of antigen-antibody reaction due to its steric effect. Therefore, herein we report an innovative non-enzymatic chemiluminescence immunoassays labeling reagent through using quinone as a signal-generating tag coupled with biotin as a binder, to overcome enzymatic labeling problems. Biotinylated-1,4-naphthoquinone (biotin-NQ) was synthesized and characterized and it could produce long-lasting chemiluminescence upon mixing with dithiothreitol and luminol based on the redox cycle of quinone. Biotin-NQ showed exceptional stability towards different stress factors that may be encountered during performing the immunoassay such as high temperatures, highly acidic and alkaline conditions, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. On the other hand, all these conditions lead to decreased labeling enzyme reactivity due to possible denaturation of its protein structure. Finally, the measurement of the biotin-labeled antibody was successfully performed using biotin-NQ and avidin. As a result, the antibody could be detected down to 25.7 nM which is 2.5 times sensitive than biotin-HRP chemiluminescence-enzyme immunoassays. Moreover, our method was applied successfully for determination of avidin using immobilized biotinylated antibody and biotin-NQ, which simulates immunoassays. Avidin could be detected down to 23.4 nM with excellent linearity (r = 0.996). Accordingly, our developed reagent, biotin-NQ, could be used as a universal highly stable, cost-effective, and steric free non-enzymatic label for immunoassays. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Mahmoud El-Maghrabey, Naoya Kishikawa, Shiori Harada, Kaname Ohyama, Naotaka Kuroda. Quinone-based antibody labeling reagent for enzyme-free chemiluminescent immunoassays. Application to avidin and biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG labeling. Biosensors & bioelectronics. 2020 Jul 15;160:112215

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    PMID: 32339156

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