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During neural development, growth cones, very motile compartments of tips of axons, lead axonal extension to the correct targets. Subsequently, presynapses, another axonal compartment with vigorous trafficking of synaptic vesicles, emerge to form functional synapses with postsynapses. In response to extracellular stimuli, the immediate supply of proteins by local translation within these two axonal compartments far from cell bodies confers high motility of growth cones and active vesicle trafficking in presynapses. Although local translation in growth cones and presynapses occurs at a very low level compared with cell bodies and even dendrites, recent progress in omics and visualization techniques with subcellular fractionation of these compartments has revealed the actual situation of local translation within these two axonal compartments. Here, the increasing evidence for local protein synthesis in growth cones and presynapses for axonal and synaptic functions has been reviewed. Furthermore, the mechanisms regulating local translation in these two compartments and pathophysiological conditions caused by dysregulated local translation are highlighted.


Yukio Sasaki. Local Translation in Growth Cones and Presynapses, Two Axonal Compartments for Local Neuronal Functions. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 25;10(5)

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PMID: 32344905

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