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    Glucose is an essential source of energy for mammalian cells and is transported into the cells by glucose transporters. There are 2 types of glucose transporters: one is a passive glucose transporter, GLUT (SLC2A), and the other is a sodium-dependent active glucose transporter, SGLT (SLC5A). We previously reported that the expression of GLUTs during tooth development is precisely and spatiotemporally controlled and that the glucose uptake mediated by GLUT1 plays a crucial role in early tooth morphogenesis and tooth size determination. This study aimed to clarify the localization and roles of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in murine ameloblast differentiation by using immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, an in vitro tooth organ culture experiment, and in vivo administration of an inhibitor of SGLT1/2, phloridzin. SGLT1, which has high affinity with glucose, was immunolocalized in the early secretory ameloblasts and the ruffle-ended ameloblasts in the maturation stage. However, SGLT2, which has high glucose transport capacity, was observed in the stratum intermedium, papillary layer, and ameloblasts at the maturation stage and colocalized with Na+-K+-ATPase. The inhibition of SGLT1/2 by phloridzin in the tooth germs induced the disturbance of ameloblast differentiation and enamel matrix formation both in vitro (organ culture) and in vivo (mouse model). The expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 was significantly upregulated in hypoxic conditions in the ameloblast-lineage cells. These findings suggest that the active glucose uptake mediated by SGLT1 and SGLT2 is strictly regulated and dependent on the intra- and extracellular microenvironments during tooth morphogenesis and that the appropriate passive and active glucose transport is an essential event in amelogenesis.


    H Ida-Yonemochi, K Otsu, H Harada, H Ohshima. Functional Expression of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter in Amelogenesis. Journal of dental research. 2020 Jul;99(8):977-986

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    PMID: 32345094

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