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    The present study aims to employ a multiplex PCR-based method for phylogenetic typing of Shigella and determine the frequency of several virulence genes among Shigella phylogenetic clades and species. Species identification, phylogenetic typing of 44 previously diagnosed Shigella isolates, and frequency of virulence genes and loci, virA, virB, virF, ipaBCD, ial, sen, and set1A were investigated through performing several PCR assays. Distribution of virulence genes among Shigella phylogenetic clades and species was determined by the statistical analysis. The identities of 40 isolates out of 44 were confirmed as Shigella, and these isolates were classified in four phylogenetic clades, S1 (7.5%), S2 (52.5%), S3 (20%), and S5 (20%) and 4 species, S. sonnei (52.5%), S. flexneri (22.5%), S. dysenteriae (20%), and S. boydii (5%). The prevalence of virA, virB, virF, ipaBCD, ial, sen, and set1A was determined as 67.5%, 72.5%, 72.5%, 65%, 75%, 40%, and 5%, respectively. The presence of sen, uidA, or set1A was found to be statistically correlated with either of Shigella phylogenetic clades or species. A significant statistically association was also determined between set1A and Shigella phylogenetic clades. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of invasion-associated locus (ial) was determined and mapped on Shigella genome through in silico analysis. The current study shows the distribution of Shigella isolates and its key virulence genes within the five recently described phylogenetic clades for the first time in the Asia. This is also the first description of ial nucleotide sequence and its exact location on Shigella genome after its initial identification.


    Sina Arabshahi, Aytak Novinrooz, Reza Ranjbar, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi. Molecular characterization of Shigella species isolated from diarrheal patients in Tehran, Iran: phylogenetic typing and its association with virulence gene profiles and a novel description of Shigella invasion associated locus. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology. 2020 Sep;39(9):1727-1737

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    PMID: 32350738

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