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A unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement scheme to discriminate gall bladder (GB) polyp and GB cancer by analysis of bile juice is proposed. Along with the high sensitivity of SERS, external voltage application during SERS measurement was incorporated to improve sample discriminability. For this purpose, Au nanodendrites were constructed on a screen-printed electrode (referred to as AuND@SPE), and Raman spectra of extracted aqueous phases from raw bile juice samples were acquired using the AuND@SPE at voltages from -300 to 300 mV. The sample spectra resembled that of bilirubin, possessing an open chain tetrapyrrole, showing that bilirubin derivatives in bile juice were mainly responsible for the observed peaks. Discrimination of GB polyp and GB cancer using just the normal SERS spectra was not achieved but became apparent when the spectra were acquired at a voltage of -100 mV. When voltage-applied SERS spectra of bilirubin and urobilinogen (one of bilirubin's derivatives) were examined, a sudden intensity elevation occurring at -100 mV was observed for urobilinogen but not bilirubin. Based on examination of corresponding cyclic voltammograms, the potential-driven strong adsorption of urobilinogen (no faradaic charge transfer) on AuND occurring at -100 mV induced a substantial increase in SERS intensity. It was presumed that the content of urobilinogen in the bile juice of a GB cancer patient would be higher than that of a GB polyp patient, and the contained urobilinogen was sensitively highlighted by applying -100 mV during SERS measurement, allowing clear discrimination of GB cancer against GB polyp.


Tung Duy Vu, Eunjin Jang, Jihye Lee, Dongho Choi, Jinho Chang, Hoeil Chung. Feasibility of Voltage-Applied SERS Measurement of Bile Juice as an Effective Analytical Scheme to Enhance Discrimination between Gall Bladder (GB) Polyp and GB Cancer. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Jun 16;92(12):8159-8169

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PMID: 32402193

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