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    In eukaryotes, the beak structure of 40S subunits is formed by the protrusion of the 18S rRNA helix 33 and three ribosomal proteins: eS10, eS12 and eS31. The exact role of these proteins in ribosome biogenesis is not well understood. While eS10 is an essential protein encoded by two paralogous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eS12 and eS31 are not essential proteins encoded by the single-copy genes RPS12 and UBI3, respectively. Here, we have analysed the contribution of yeast eS12 to ribosome biogenesis and compared it with that of eS31. Polysome analysis reveals that deletion of either RPS12 or UBI3 results in equivalent 40S deficits. Analysis of pre-rRNA processing indicates that eS12, akin to eS31, is required for efficient processing of 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA. Moreover, we show that the 20S pre-rRNA accumulates within cytoplasmic pre-40S particles, as deduced from FISH experiments and the lack of nuclear retention of 40S subunit reporter proteins, in rps12∆ and ubi3∆ cells. However, these particles containing 20S pre-rRNA are not efficiently incorporated into polyribosomes. We also provide evidence for a genetic interaction between eS12 or eS31 and the late-acting 40S assembly factors Enp1 and Ltv1, which appears not to be linked to the dynamics of their association with or release from pre-40S particles in the absence of either eS12 or eS31. Finally, we show that eS12- and eS31-deficient ribosomes exhibit increased levels of translational misreading. Altogether, our data highlight distinct important roles of the beak region during ribosome assembly and function.


    Sara Martín-Villanueva, José Fernández-Fernández, Olga Rodríguez-Galán, Julia Fernández-Boraita, Eduardo Villalobo, Jesús de La Cruz. Role of the 40S beak ribosomal protein eS12 in ribosome biogenesis and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNA biology. 2020 Sep;17(9):1261-1276

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    PMID: 32408794

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