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Biochemical and genetic studies have indicated that O-linked glycosylation such as O-glucose (Glc), fucose (Fuc), and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is critical for Notch signaling; however, it is not fully understood how O-glycans regulate the Notch receptor function. Notch receptors are type-I transmembrane proteins with large extracellular domains (ECD), containing 29-36 epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats. Here, we analyzed O-Glc glycans on NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 expressed in HEK293T cells using an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer and successfully revealed the structures and stoichiometries of all 17 EGF repeats of NOTCH1 with the O-Glc consensus sequence (C1-X-S-X-(P/A)-C2), and 16 out of 17 EGF repeats of NOTCH2 with the same consensus sequence. High levels of O-Glc attachment and xylosyl elongation were detected on most NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 EGF repeats. When both glucoside xylosyltransferases, GXYLT1 and GXYLT2, responsible for the xylosyl elongation of O-glucose, were genetically deleted, the expression of endogenous NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 on the surface of HEK293T cells did not change, but the cell surface expression of overexpressed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 decreased compared with that in the wild type cells. In vitro secretion assays consistently showed a reduced secretion of both the NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 ECDs in GXYLT1 and GXYLT2 double knockout cells compared with the wild type cells, suggesting a significant role of the elongation of O-Glc glycans on the Notch ECDs in the quality control of Notch receptors.


Yusuke Urata, Wataru Saiki, Yohei Tsukamoto, Hiroaki Sago, Hideharu Hibi, Tetsuya Okajima, Hideyuki Takeuchi. Xylosyl Extension of O-Glucose Glycans on the Extracellular Domain of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 Regulates Notch Cell Surface Trafficking. Cells. 2020 May 14;9(5)

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PMID: 32423029

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