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Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most frequent immune cells within tumor microenvironment (TME). There is growing evidence that TAMs are involved in tumor progression via multiple mechanisms. TAMs create an immunosuppressive TME by producing growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines which modulate recruitment of immune cells and inhibit anti-tumor responses. They also serve as angiogenesis promoting cells by production of pro-angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular constructing which guarantee supplying oxygen and nutrients to solid tumor cells. Furthermore, TAMs play important functions in tumor metastasis through contributing to invasion, extravasation, survival, intravasation, and colonization of tumor cells. In this review, we summarized macrophage classification, TAMs polarization, and mechanisms underlying TAM-promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Luo-Qin Fu, Wen-Lin Du, Mao-Hua Cai, Jia-Yu Yao, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Xiao-Zhou Mou. The roles of tumor-associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Cellular immunology. 2020 Jul;353:104119

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PMID: 32446032

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