Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • anesthesia (4)
  • braces (5)
  • cast (19)
  • child (1)
  • child preschool (1)
  • Cobb (4)
  • cohort study (1)
  • female (2)
  • food (1)
  • humans (1)
  • infant (1)
  • patients (12)
  • scoliosis (4)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Use of cast is a standard treatment (Tx) choice for early-onset scoliosis. Recently, toxicity from repetitive use of general anesthesia has received attention by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We introduce a nonanesthetized cast Tx protocol called alternatively-repetitive-cast-and-brace (ARCB) that we have used since 1995 and have conducted an extensive follow-up on these patients to verify the efficacy of this protocol. This is a retrospective cohort study. Of a consecutive series of 155 patients who have undergone cast Tx at a single institution, 98 patients (male: 36, female: 62) have been identified under the following criteria: (1) Initial age before ARCB of ≤6; (2) Follow-up period of ≥2 years; (3) Initial scoliosis ≥35 degrees. Patients consisted of the following: congenital/structural: 45, idiopathic: 23, neuromuscular: 6, syndromic: 24. Precast, postfinal cast, minimum in-cast Cobb, as well as thoracic and T1-S1 heights were measured. Fifty-six of these patients had available pulse oximetry on days before and after initial cast, and these were also evaluated to assess cardiopulmonary effects that the cast have on the patients. Patients were casted 6.6 times, with a mean initial Cobb of 56.5 degrees and a final follow-up Cobb of 57.1 degrees. Follow-up period was 5.0 years. Mean curve progression per follow-up period was 0.5 degrees/y. Minimum in-cast Cobb was 25.6 degrees. Initially patients had a thoracic and T1-S1 height of 12.6 and 22.5 cm, respectively. At final cast, these were 15.3 and 27.2 cm, respectively. Of these patients, 39 had progression >1 degree/y, of which 83.1% had resulted in surgical correction, while this was true for only 37.3% of those that did not show such progression. Idiopathic patients had the greatest correction rate by cast (69%) and had shown an overall progression rate of -2.3 degrees/y. Pulse-oximetry results were not significant amongst patients before and after cast placement. ARCB is a versatile and practical Tx choice. It is an effective delaying method in sparing time until surgery with no apparent cardiopulmonary compromise. Curve control was most effective in Idiopathic patients while some curve control was achieved in other etiologies which may have spared time until their eventual surgery. Cast Tx without the need of general anesthesia is an increasingly important topic since anesthesia toxicity from its repetitive use has become apparent. This study exemplifies safe and efficacious use of such cast with effective suppression on cast progression in different etiologies at various degrees.


    Kazuki Kawakami, Toshiki Saito, Ryoji Tauchi, Tetsuya Ohara, Noriaki Kawakami. Nonanesthetized Alternatively Repetitive Cast and Brace Treatment for Early-onset Scoliosis. Journal of pediatric orthopedics. 2020 Sep;40(8):e720-e727

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    PMID: 32467419

    View Full Text