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    Cytokinins and their sugar or non-sugar conjugates are very active growth-promoting factors in plants, although they occur at very low concentrations. These compounds have been identified in numerous plant species. This review predominantly focuses on 9-substituted adenine-based cytokinin conjugates, both artificial and endogenous, sugar and non-sugar, and their roles in plants. Acquired information about their biological activities, interconversions, and metabolism improves understanding of their mechanisms of action and functions in planta. Although a number of 9-substituted cytokinins occur endogenously, many have also been prepared in laboratories to facilitate the clarification of their physiological roles and the determination of their biological properties. Here, we chart advances in knowledge of 9-substituted cytokinin conjugates from their discovery to current understanding and reciprocal interactions between biological properties and associated structural motifs. Current organic chemistry enables preparation of derivatives with better biological properties, such as improved anti-senescence, strong cell division stimulation, shoot forming, or more persistent stress tolerance compared to endogenous or canonical cytokinins. Many artificial cytokinin conjugates stimulate higher mass production than naturally occurring cytokinins, improve rooting, or simply have high stability or bioavailability. Thus, knowledge of the biosynthesis, metabolism, and activity of 9-substituted cytokinins in various plant species extends the scope for exploiting both natural and artificially prepared cytokinins in plant biotechnology, tissue culture, and agriculture.


    Hana Vylíčilová, Magdaléna Bryksová, Vlasta Matušková, Karel Doležal, Lucie Plíhalová, Miroslav Strnad. Naturally Occurring and Artificial N9-Cytokinin Conjugates: From Synthesis to Biological Activity and Back. Biomolecules. 2020 May 29;10(6)

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    PMID: 32485963

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