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    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant alpha-galactosidase A (rh-α-Gal A) is the standard treatment for Fabry disease (FD). ERT has shown a significant impact on patients; however, there is still morbidity and mortality in FD, resulting in progressive cardiac, renal, and cerebrovascular pathology. The main pathway for delivery of rh-α-Gal A to lysosome is cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) endocytosis, also known as insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) endocytosis. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms of uptake of rh-α-Gal-A in different cell types, with the exploration of clathrin-dependent and caveolin assisted receptor-mediated endocytosis and the dynamics of autophagy-lysosomal functions. rh-α-Gal-A uptake was evaluated in primary fibroblasts, urine originated kidney epithelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from Fabry patients and healthy controls, and in cell lines HEK293, HTP1, and HUVEC. Uptake of rh-α-Gal-A was more efficient in the cells with the lowest endogenous enzyme activity. Chloroquine and monensin significantly blocked the uptake of rh-α-Gal-A, indicating that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in recombinant enzyme delivery. Alternative caveolae-mediated endocytosis coexists with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, clathrin-dependent endocytosis is a dominant mechanism for enzyme uptake in all cell lines. These results show that the uptake of rh-α-Gal-A occurs rapidly and activates the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.

    Citation

    Margarita M Ivanova, Julia Dao, Neil Kasaci, Benjamin Adewale, Jacqueline Fikry, Ozlem Goker-Alpan. Rapid Clathrin-Mediated Uptake of Recombinant α-Gal-A to Lysosome Activates Autophagy. Biomolecules. 2020 May 30;10(6)

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    PMID: 32486191

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