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Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Although it is one of the main complications of diabetes, the pathogenesis of DME is not completely understood. The hyperglycemic state promotes the activation of multiple interlinked pathways leading to DME. Different classifications have been proposed: based on clinical features, on pathogenesis or on diagnostic tests (optical coherence tomography - OCT and fluorescin angiography - FA). The multimodal imaging allows a better analysis of the morphological features of the DME. Indeed, new inflammatory biomarkers have been identified on OCT. Also, several studies are evaluating the role of the morphological features, identified on multimodal imaging, to find new prognostic factors. Over the past decade, great progresses have been made in the management of DME. Therapeutic alternatives include intraocular injection of anti-vascular endothelial grow factor agents (anti-VEGF) and steroid molecules, focal/grid laser photocoagulation and vitreo-retinal surgery. This review is focused on the description and analysis of the current intravitreal therapeutic pharmacological strategies. Current guidelines recommend anti-VEGF as first line therapy in DME. Corticosteroids are becoming increasingly relevant blocking the inflammatory cascade and indirectly reducing VEGF synthesis.


Annalisa Gurreri, Alberto Pazzaglia. Diabetic Macular Edema: State of Art and Intraocular Pharmacological Approaches. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2021;1307:375-389

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PMID: 32488606

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