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    Multimodal continuous bedside monitoring is increasingly recognized as a promising option for early treatment stratification in patients at risk for ischemia during neurocritical care. Modalities used at present are, for example, oxygen availability and subdural electrocorticography. The assessment of mitochondrial function could be an interesting complement to these modalities. For instance, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence permits direct insight into the mitochondrial redox state. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using FAD fluorometry to monitor consequences of hypoxia in brain tissue in vitro and in vivo. By combining experimental results with computational modeling, we identified the potential source responsible for the fluorescence signal and gained insight into the hypoxia-associated metabolic changes in neuronal energy metabolism. In vitro, hypoxia was characterized by a reductive shift of FAD, impairment of synaptic transmission and increasing interstitial potassium [K+]o. Computer simulations predicted FAD changes to originate from the citric acid cycle enzyme α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In vivo, the FAD signal during early hypoxia displayed a reductive shift followed by a short oxidation associated with terminal spreading depolarization. In silico, initial tissue hypoxia followed by a transient re-oxygenation phase due to glucose depletion might explain FAD dynamics in vivo. Our work suggests that FAD fluorescence could be readily used to monitor mitochondrial function during hypoxia and represents a potential diagnostic tool to differentiate underlying metabolic processes for complementation of multimodal brain monitoring.


    Nikolaus Berndt, Richard Kovács, Jörg Rösner, Iwona Wallach, Jens P Dreier, Agustin Liotta. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Fluorescence as an Early Marker of Mitochondrial Impairment During Brain Hypoxia. International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Jun 01;21(11)

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    PMID: 32492921

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